Tellegen’s Theorem This theorem states that algebraic sum of the power’s in any circuit (linear, non-linear, unidirectional, bi-directional, time-invariant and time-variant elements) at any instant is zero. It was published in 1952 by Bernard Tellegen. For verification of Tellegen’s theorem, KVL

## Millman’s Theorem | Limitations & Applications

Millman’s Theorem Case-1 The theorem states that if several ideal voltage sources V1, V2, V3,……., Vn in series with resistances R1, R2, R3,…….., Rn, are connected in parallel then the circuit may be replaced by a single voltage source Vout in

## Star to Delta Transformation/Y-Δ

In this article, we will see how to convert star configuration into delta configuration. This transformation permits three resistors which make a Y configuration to be replaced by three in a Δ configuration. The equivalent delta resistance between any two terminals is

## Delta to Star Transformation/Δ-Y

In this article, we will see how to convert delta configuration into star configuration. This transformation permits three resistors which make a Δ configuration to be replaced by three in a Y configuration. The resistance of each arm of the star

## Superposition Theorem | Applications & Limitations

Superposition Theorem Definition In any linear bi-directional circuit having more number of sources, the response in anyone of the elements is equal to an algebraic sum of the responses caused by individual sources while the rest of the sources are

## Invertibility & Inverse System

Invertible System The system is invertible if by observing the output, we can determine its input i.e. we can construct an inverse system that when cascaded with the given system, as shown in figure1, yields an output equal to the

## Time-Varying & Time-Invariant Systems

Time-Invariant System The system is time invariant if the behaviour and characteristic of the system are fixed over time. In other words, a system is said to be time invariant if a time shift in the input signal causes an identical

## Linear and Non-Linear Systems

Linear System A system is said to be linear if superposition principle is applicable to the system. Superposition Principle The response resulting from several input signals can be computed as the sum of the responses resulting from each input signal

## Reciprocity Theorem | Explanation & Limitations

Reciprocity Theorem In a linear, bilateral time-varying network, the ratio between response to the excitation remains same even after the position of response and excitation are interchanged. OR In a very lucid way, we can explain the reciprocity theorem as

## Thevenin’s theorem | Applications

Thevenin’s theorem Definition In any linear bi-directional circuit having more number of elements, it can be replaced by a single equivalent circuit consisting of equivalent voltage (Thevenin equivalent voltage) in series with an equivalent resistance (Thevenin equivalent resistance). By using