What is Reciprocity Theorem? Explanation & Limitations

Reciprocity Theorem In a linear, bilateral time-varying network, the ratio between response to the excitation remains same even after the position of response and excitation are interchanged. OR In a very lucid way, we can explain the reciprocity theorem as when the places of voltage and current source in any network are interchanged, the amount … Read more

Resistance in Series

When two or more resistances are connected end to end consecutively, they are said to be connected in series. Figure 1 shows four resistances R1, R2, R3 and R4 which are connected in series. Resistances in series is denoted pictorially as shown in figure 2.   According to the law of combination of resistances in series, … Read more

Classification of Electrical Energy Sources


Electrical energy sources are majorly classified into two classes i.e. Independent sources and Dependent sources. The independent sources are further divided into two types namely voltage source and the current source. There are four types of the dependent sources. They are as follows 1. Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) 2. Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS) 3. … Read more

Classification of Element | Network Theory

In electrical circuits, the classification of circuit elements can be classified as Linear and non-linear element Active and Passive element Unilateral and Bilateral element Time-variant and Time invariant element Linear and non-linear element An element or a system is said to be linear if it obeys the principles of additive and homogeneity properties. For linear elements, … Read more

Difference Between Ground and Neutral

Ground or earth in a main (AC power) electrical wiring system is a conductor that exists primarily to help protect against faults and which in normal operation does not carry current. Neutral is a circuit conductor that may carry current in normal operation, and which is usually connected to earth. In-house wiring, it is the … Read more

Tellegen’s Theorem | Applications & Limitations

Tellegen’s Theorem This theorem states that algebraic sum of the power’s in any circuit (linear, non-linear, unidirectional, bi-directional, time-invariant and time-variant elements) at any instant is zero. It was published in 1952 by Bernard Tellegen. For verification of Tellegen’s theorem, KVL and KCL equations are used. Tellegen’s theorem works based on the principle of the law of … Read more