Tellegen’s Theorem | Applications & Limitations

Tellegen’s Theorem This theorem states that algebraic sum of the power’s in any circuit (linear, non-linear, unidirectional, bi-directional, time-invariant and time-variant elements) at any instant is zero. It was published in 1952 by Bernard Tellegen. For verification of Tellegen’s theorem, KVL and KCL equations are used. Tellegen’s theorem works based on the principle of the law of […]

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Millman’s Theorem | Limitations & Applications

Millman’s Theorem Case-1 The theorem states that if several ideal voltage sources V1, V2, V3,……., Vn in series with resistances R1, R2, R3,…….., Rn, are connected in parallel then the circuit may be replaced by a single voltage source Vout in series with the resistance Req. Let us consider a circuit having three sources i.e. n=3. […]

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Star to Delta Transformation/Y-Δ

In this article, we will see how to convert star configuration into delta configuration. This transformation permits three resistors which make a Y configuration to be replaced by three in a Δ configuration.  The equivalent delta resistance between any two terminals is given by the sum of star resistances between those terminals plus the product of these […]

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Superposition Theorem | Applications & Limitations

Superposition Theorem Definition In any linear bi-directional circuit having more number of sources, the response in anyone of the elements is equal to an algebraic sum of the responses caused by individual sources while the rest of the sources are replaced by its internal resistance. OR In a network of linear impedances containing more than […]

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Time-Varying & Time-Invariant Systems

Time-Invariant System The system is time invariant if the behaviour and characteristic of the system are fixed over time. In other words, a system is said to be time invariant if a time shift in the input signal causes an identical time shift in the output signal. It means that  for continuous time if x(t) → y(t), then x(t-to) → y(t-to) […]

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