Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) or Resistance Thermometers

Measurement

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) It is a device which senses the resistance change on account of temperature change. This property is used for measurement of temperature. Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is also called as a resistance thermometer. It uses the change in electrical resistance to measure the temperature. Construction of RTD RTD elements consist of […]

Faraday’s Law And Lenz’s Law Of Electromagnetic Induction

Electrical Laws

In 1831, Micheal Faraday formulated two important laws on the basis of certain experiments that shows a relationship between the electric circuit and magnetic field. These laws are called Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction. Faraday’s First Law According to Faraday’s First Law, Whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field, an EMF is […]

Skin Effect And Proximity Effect In Conductors

Power System

The distribution of current over the entire cross-section of the conductor is uniform in case of a DC system. But there is an unequal distribution of current over the entire cross-section of the conductor in case of AC system. Here what Skin Effect arises. What Is Skin Effect? When an AC Current flows through a conductor, it […]

Thermistors Characteristics | Advantages & Applications

Advanced Instrumentation Measurement Transducers

Fig. NTC Thermistors (source: ussensor.com)   Thermistors These are the thermally sensitive resistors. The resistance of a thermistor varies as a function of temperature. The thermistor is also called thermal resistors. It is a resistive temperature transducer. Thermistors are composed of semiconductor materials.  It is composed of a sintered mixture of metallic oxides such as Mn, […]

Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) | Advantages & Applications

Advanced Instrumentation M.Tech. Measurement Transducers

Fig: LVDT cross-section (source: te.com )   Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is an inductive transducer that we discussed in the previous article. It is basically used to translate linear motion into electrical signals. LVDT Construction LVDT consists of one primary winding and two secondary windings. All these windings are wound on a cylindrical former. […]

Potentiometer transducer | Advantages & Applications

M.Tech. Measurement

Fig. Resistive Potentiometers (POT) (source: instructables.com) Potentiometer  A potentiometer consists of a resistive element having a sliding contact. This sliding contact is known as a wiper. A potentiometer is also called as POT because it is used in voltage division. It is a resistive and passive transducer.   Depending upon the motion of wiper, potentiometer are […]

Strain Gauge Working Principle & Applications

Advanced Instrumentation M.Tech. Measurement Transducers

Fig. Strain Gauges (source: omega.com)   Strain gauge A strain gauge is an electrical transducer which is used for measuring mechanical surface strain. Basic Principle of Strain Gauge When stress is applied to the metal conductor, its resistance changes owing to change in length and cross-sectional area of the conductor. The resistance of the conductor under […]

Thermocouple Working | Advantages & Applications

Advanced Instrumentation M.Tech. Measurement Transducers

Fig. Thermocouple (source: sterlingsensors.co.uk)   What is a Thermocouple? A thermocouple consists of a pair of dissimilar wires joined at one end. It is an active transducer. On the other hand, RTD and thermistors are passive transducers. Thermocouple work on the principle of Seebeck effect. According to Seebeck effect, if two dissimilar metals are joined together […]

Piezoelectric Transducer | Advantages & Applications

Advanced Instrumentation M.Tech. Measurement Transducers

Piezoelectric Transducer A piezoelectric transducer is one that can generate a voltage proportional to the stress applied to it. These transducers work according to the piezoelectric effect. When a mechanical force or pressure is applied across the piezoelectric crystal, an electric potential appears across the surfaces of crystal. This generation of electric potential is due […]

Hall Effect Transducers | Advantages & Applications

Advanced Instrumentation M.Tech. Measurement Transducers

Hall Effect Transducers Hall Effect Transducers are the transducers which work on the principle of hall effect. According to hall effect, if a conducting material strip carries current in the presence of a transverse magnetic field; an EMF is produced between two edges of the conductor in a direction perpendicular to both the magnetic field […]