Earthing or Grounding

Earthing or Grounding Grounding is the process of creating an alternative(different) path for the flow of fault(excessive) currents safely into the ground in the presence of minimal resistance or impedance. It connects non-current carrying parts of an equipment to the general mass of earth in such a manner as to ensure,…


Insulating Materials for Cables & Electronic Equipments

Insulating Materials for Cables The insulating materials (dielectrics) used for cables must have low discharge current, low dissipation factor (low loss tangent), and should be chemically stable. The materials generally used are impregnated paper, bituminous compounds, rubber, compressed air, mineral oil etc. In the present days, cross-linked polyethylene cables (XLPE)…


Electrical Machine Insulation

In electrical machines, the insulation system must withstand the high electrical stresses and severe mechanical stresses induced by the magnetic field of the moving rotor. In machines, multi-turn windings are put in narrow armature slots, which are usually grounded. Rotating machine stator insulation construction is divided into principal types: Random…


Insulating Materials for Power & Distribution Transformers

The insulating materials used in power and distribution transformers must possess the following properties: Good electrical properties to withstand the power frequency (50 Hz) voltages and impulse overvoltages. Good mechanical properties to withstand fabrication and handling during manufacture and electromagnetic forces during overload, short circuit, and normal operating conditions. Good…


Solid Insulating Materials

Solid insulating materials may be natural organic substances like paper, cloth, rubber, etc. or inorganic materials like Mica, Glass, or synthetic materials like plastics. The different solid insulating materials are: Paper and Pressboards Fibrous materials (unimpregnated and impregnated) Impregnated coating, filling, and bonding materials Resins (Polymers) Natural and synthetic rubbers Inorganic…


Liquid Insulating Materials

An ideal insulating liquid must have following properties: High electric strength, impulse strength, and volume resistivity. Low dielectric dissipation factor. High or low dielectric constant (depending on application). High specific heat and thermal conductivity. Excellent chemical stability and gas-absorbing properties. Low viscosity, low-density, low volatility, low solvent power and high…


Components of A Substation

The main components of a substation are Busbars Surge or Lightning Arresters Isolators or disconnecting switches Earth Switch Circuit Breaker Power Transformer Wave Trap Current Transformer Potential Transformer 1. Busbars It is a strip or bar of copper, brass or aluminium that conducts electricity within a switchboard of a substation.…


Electrical Power Substations

Substation It is defined as the transmission and distribution network which receives electrical energy at a higher voltage and transfer to a consumer at low voltage. The points that should be kept in mind while setting Substations Substation should be located at a proper site as far as possible. Substation…


Electromagnetic Interference & Compatibility

Everday we come across many electronic devices like radio, television, smartphone, computer, tablets, speakers, headphones, chargers, etc. All these devices are the source of radiated electromagnetic fields called radiated emissions. These radiated emissions are the accidental by-product of the device design. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) It is the degradation in performance of…


Components of HVDC Transmission System

In the previous article, we learnt about HVDC Transmission System, its advantages and disadvantages. In this article, we will discuss the main components of HVDC Transmission System. The main components associated with HVDC system are as follows Converter Smoothing reactor Harmonic filters Reactive Power Supplies Electrodes DC lines AC Circuit Breaker 1.…


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