## Parseval’s theorem | Proof

Parseval’s theorem It states that the sum (or integral) of the square of a function is equal to the sum (or integral) of the square of its transform. Parseval’s theorem is also known as Rayleigh’s energy theorem or Rayleigh’s Identity or simply energy theorem.   Proofs of Parseval’s Theorem

## Control System | Questions & Answers

Q. What is a System? Answer. When a number of elements or components are connected in a sequence to perform a specific function, the group of elements that all constitute a System. Q. What is Control System? Answer. In a System the output and inputs are interrelated in such a manner that the output quantity or variable … Read moreControl System | Questions & Answers

## Transfer function Definition | Advantages & Disadvantages

Transfer function Definition A transfer function is expressed as the ratio of Laplace transform of output to the Laplace transform of input assuming all initial condition to be zero. Consider a system whose time domain block diagram is   where, r(t) = input and c(t) = output Now taking Laplace transform then Now the transfer … Read moreTransfer function Definition | Advantages & Disadvantages

## Control System Basics

Our daily activities are getting automated every day. Control System plays an important role in making our life automated and modernized. A microwave, refrigerator, an air conditioner, a geezer, an automatic iron, are some examples of a control system. Many engineering fields use control system principle in many applications.   System It is an interconnection … Read moreControl System Basics

## Proportional-Integral (PI) Controllers

Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers are used in many industrial control applications. The main purpose of using Proportional and Integral (PI) in process system is to improve the steady-state accuracy of the system without affecting the stability of the system. Proportional action responds quickly to the error deviation and the integral action will act slowly but offset … Read moreProportional-Integral (PI) Controllers

## Frequency Domain Analysis | Advantages

Frequency Response The Frequency Response of the system is the steady-state response of the system obtained as the output when a sinusoidal input signal is given to the system. For determining the frequency response of a control system sinusoidal signal is given as input to the system with different frequencies and response of the output … Read moreFrequency Domain Analysis | Advantages

## Proportional (P), Integral (I), Derivative (D) Controllers Usage Conditions

1. When does the Proportional (P) Controller is used? Answer. Proportional (P) Controller is used during the following conditions: Load Changes are small Offset (error exist due to difference between steady state value and desired value) can be tolerated. The process reaction rate is such as to permit a narrow proportional band. Since this reduces … Read moreProportional (P), Integral (I), Derivative (D) Controllers Usage Conditions

## Distributed Control System (DCS) in Power Plant

Usage of Single Computer for control of all the process variables of a plant would result in the loss of control activities in the plant if a failure occurs in the master single computer. Also, the time required for accessing large data, processing the received data and controlling of the entire plant by single computer … Read moreDistributed Control System (DCS) in Power Plant

## Extended Kalman Filter | Algorithm & Applications

In the previous article, we had learned about Kalman filter. As Kalman filter assumes linear system but finds greatest applications in non-linear systems. Kalman filter assumes an approximate solution, describe the deviations from the reference by linear equations. Kalman filter has issues of divergence also. When the error covariance matrix Pk computed by the Kalman filter … Read moreExtended Kalman Filter | Algorithm & Applications

## Kalman Filter | Algorithm & Applications

The Kalman filter is a recursive state space model based estimation algorithm. In other words, it is an optimal recursive data processing algorithm. Kalman filter is also called as the Predictor-Corrector algorithm. This filter is named after Rudolph E. Kalman, who in 1960 published his famous paper describing a recursive solution to the discrete data … Read moreKalman Filter | Algorithm & Applications

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