**1. A variable is a symbol in Boolean algebra used to represent**

(a) data

(b) a condition

(c) an action

(d) answers (a), (b), and (c)

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Answer. d

**2. The Boolean expression A + B + C is**

(a) a sum term

(b) a literal term

(c) an inverse term

(d) a product term

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Answer. a

**3. According to the associative law of addition,**

(a) A + B = B + A

(b) A = A + A

(c) (A + B) + C = A + (B + C )

(d) A + 0 = A

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Answer. c

**4. According to commutative law of multiplication,**

(a) AB = BA

(b) A = AA

(c) (AB)C = A(BC )

(d) A0 = A

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Answer. a

**5. According to the distributive law,**

(a) A(B + C) = AB + AC

(b) A(BC) = ABC

(c) A(A + 1) = A

(d) A + AB = A

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Answer. a

**6. Which of the following rules states that if one input of an AND gate is always 1, the output is equal to the other input?**

(a) A + 1 = 1

(b) A + A = A

(c) A . A = A

(d) A . 1 = A

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Answer. d

**7. According to DeMorgan’s theorems, the complement of a product of variables is equal to**

(a) the complement of the sum

(b) the sum of the complements

(c) the product of the complements

(d) answers (a), (b), and (c)

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Answer. b

**8. The Boolean expression X = (A + B)(C + D) represents**

(a) two ORs ANDed together

(b) two ANDs ORed together

(c) A 4-input AND gate

(d) a 4-input OR gate

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Answer. a

**9. A 4-variable Karnaugh map has**

(a) four cells

(b) eight cells

(c) sixteen cells

(d) thirty-two cells

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Answer. c

**10. In a 4-variable Karnaugh map, a 2-variable product term is produced by**

(a) a 2-cell group of 1s

(b) an 8-cell group of 1s

(c) a 4-cell group of 1s

(d) a 4-cell group of 0s

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Answer. c

**11. The Quine-McCluskey method can be used to**

(a) replace the Karnaugh map method

(b) simplify expressions with 5 or more variables

(c) both (a) and (b)

(d) none of the above

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Answer. c

**12. VHDL is a type of**

(a) programmable logic

(b) hardware description language

(c) programmable array

(d) logical mathematics

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Answer. b

**13. In VHDL, a port is**

(a) a type of entity

(b) a type of architecture

(c) an input or output

(d) a type of variable

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Answer. c

**14. Using VDHL, a logic circuit’s inputs and outputs are described in the**

(a) architecture

(b) component

(c) entity

(d) data flow

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Answer. c