## Voltmeter–Ammeter Method for Measuring Medium Resistances

In this article, we’ll learn voltmeter-ammeter method for the measurement of the medium resistances. As the name of the method suggests, we are having ammeter and voltmeter in this method to measure the resistance of the resistor. There are two possible connections while measuring the medium resistances by this method. We’ll discuss both the connections … Read more

## Schering Bridge – Advantages & Disadvantages

Schering bridge is an AC bridge which is used for the measurement of unknown capacitance. This is one of the most commonly used AC bridge. Schering bridge is shown in figure 1 under balance condition. Introduction From figure 1, there are four arms as arm 1 = ab arm 2 = ad arm 3 = … Read more

## Owen’s Bridge – Phasor diagram & Advantages

Owen’s bridge is an AC bridge used for measurement of inductance of a coil in terms of capacitance. It is used for low Q-coils. Owen’s bridge is shown in figure 1 under balance condition. From figure 1, there are four arms as arm 1 = ab arm 2 = ad arm 3 = bc arm … Read more

## What is a Geiger Muller Counter? Working

Nuclear radiations emitted by disintegrating nuclei cannot be sensed directly. Indirect methods are employed to detect them. The Geiger Muller Counter is a radiation detector that is used for detection and measurement of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. The other radiation detectors are Ionization chamber and scintillation counters. The Geiger Muller (GM) tube consists of … Read more

## Digital Voltmeter – Circuit & Working

A digital voltmeter (DVM) is truly a voltage measuring unit where unknown analog DC voltage is to be measured i.e. first converted to digital form and then displayed on seven segment display. The accuracy, versatility, precision, robustness of Digital electronic devices cannot be matched with that of Analog devices as the former ones are far more … Read more

## Carey Foster Bridge – Working, Advantages & Applications

The Carey Foster bridge is an electrical circuit that can be used to measure medium resistances. It works on the same principle as Wheatstone bridge works i.e. operates upon a null indication principle. It was invented by Carey Foster. Carey Foster Bridge Working The working of Carey foster bridge is based on the working of … Read more

## Photoelectric Cell – Types & Applications

Photoelectric cell is the device which converts light energy into electrical energy. Depending upon the different photoelectric effects employed, the photoelectric cells are of following 3 types. Photoemissive cell Photoconductive cell Photovoltaic cell Photoemissive cell This cell is based on the fact that electrons are emitted from a photo-sensitive surface by the action of light. … Read more

## Pulse Characteristics and Terminology

The characteristics of a pulse are shown in figure 1. Base line: It is referred to the DC level and is the line at which the pulse starts and finishes. Base line shift: The shift of base line from zero volts, or the expected value, is called the base line offset. The amplitude of the pulse … Read more

## Beat Frequency Oscillator Working & Limitations

Beat Frequency Oscillator is a type of oscillator used to obtain variable frequency output in the audio frequency range. The basic working of this type of oscillator is as follows. Working Principle Figure 1 shows a block diagram of beat frequency oscillator (BFO). It uses two Radio frequency (RF) oscillators. One is fixed frequency oscillator … Read more

## Blondel’s theorem – Power in Poly-Phase System

Statement Blondel’s theorem states that if a network is supplied through P conductors, the total power is measured by adding the readings of P wattmeters so arranged that a current element of a wattmeter is in each line and the corresponding voltage element is connected between that line and a common point. Note: If the … Read more