What is a Geiger Muller Counter | Working

Nuclear radiations emitted by disintegrating nuclei cannot be sensed directly. Indirect methods are employed to detect them. The Geiger Muller Counter is a radiation detector that is used for detection and measurement of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. The other radiation detectors are Ionization chamber and scintillation counters. The Geiger Muller (GM) tube consists of … Read more

Digital Voltmeter – Circuit & Working

A digital voltmeter (DVM) is truly a voltage measuring unit where unknown analog DC voltage is to be measured i.e. first converted to digital form and then displayed on seven segment display. The accuracy, versatility, precision, robustness of Digital electronic devices cannot be matched with that of Analog devices as the former ones are far more … Read more

Photoelectric Cell – Types & Applications

Photoelectric cell is the device which converts light energy into electrical energy. Depending upon the different photoelectric effects employed, the photoelectric cells are of following 3 types. Photoemissive cell Photoconductive cell Photovoltaic cell Photoemissive cell This cell is based on the fact that electrons are emitted from a photo-sensitive surface by the action of light. … Read more

Pulse Characteristics and Terminology

The characteristics of a pulse are shown in figure 1. Base line: It is referred to the DC level and is the line at which the pulse starts and finishes. Base line shift: The shift of base line from zero volts, or the expected value, is called the base line offset. The amplitude of the pulse … Read more

Beat Frequency Oscillator | Working & Limitations

Beat Frequency Oscillator is a type of oscillator used to obtain variable frequency output in the audio frequency range. The basic working of this type of oscillator is as follows. Working Principle Figure 1 shows a block diagram of beat frequency oscillator (BFO). It uses two Radio frequency (RF) oscillators. One is fixed frequency oscillator … Read more

Blondel’s theorem | Power in Poly-Phase System

Statement Blondel’s theorem states that if a network is supplied through P conductors, the total power is measured by adding the readings of P wattmeters so arranged that a current element of a wattmeter is in each line and the corresponding voltage element is connected between that line and a common point. Note: If the … Read more

Wheatstone Bridge – Working Principle & Applications

A Wheatstone bridge is used for the accurate measurement of resistance. The Wheatstone bridge works on the principle of null deflection, i.e. the ratio of their resistances are equal, and no current flows through the galvanometer. The general arrangement of the Wheatstone bridge circuit is shown in fig. 1. It is a four arms bridge circuit … Read more

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