Virtual Instrumentation | Advantages

Virtual instrumentation combines thought industrial Technologies, like the personal computer with versatile software and a large variety of measurement and control hardware. Engineers use virtual instrumentation to bring the facility of flexible software and personal computer technology to test, control, and design applications making accurate analog and digital measurements. Virtual instrumentation is a pc software […]

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Power Quality and Related Issues

Power quality refers to maintaining the near sinusoidal waveform of power distribution bus voltages and currents at rated magnitude and frequency. Power quality describes the extent of variation of the voltage, current, harmonics, and frequency of the power system. The poor power quality effects industrial competitiveness drastically and thereby impedes our efforts to turn into […]

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Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) | Advantages & Disadvantages

What is an analog-to-digital converter? An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is a system that converts an analog signal to a digital signal. For example, a sound picked up by a microphone into a digital signal. The output of a microphone, the voltage at a photodiode or the signal of an accelerometer are the examples of the […]

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Difference between Analog & Digital Instrument

The basic difference between Analog & Digital Instrument is given below. S.No. Aspects Analog Instrument Digital Instrument  1.  Information form  As the position of pointer on a dial/scale  As a number 2.   Possibility of human error  Exists Does not exist  3.   Best possible accuracy  0.25%  +0.005% or greater 4.   Resolution  one in several hundreds  one part in […]

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Digital Voltmeter | Circuit & Working

Digital Voltmeter A digital voltmeter (DVM) is truly a voltage measuring unit where unknown analog DC voltage is to be measured i.e. first converted to digital form and then displayed on seven segment display. The accuracy, versatility, precision, robustness of Digital electronic devices cannot be matched with that of Analog devices as the former ones are […]

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Sensors | Classification & Characteristics

A sensor is basically a device that converts the physical parameter (for example, viscosity, temperature, blood pressure, light intensity, humidity, speed, etc.) into a signal(may be electrical or non-electrical quantity) which can be easily measured. For example, let us consider an electrical resistance temperature element. Here the measurand is the temperature which is being sensed […]

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Smart Sensors | Block Diagram,Architecture & Applications

A sensor producing an electrical output, when combined with some interfacing hardware is termed to be an intelligent sensor. The Intelligent sensors are also called smart sensors, which is a more acceptable term now. Sensors + Interfacing hardwares = Smart sensors This type of sensor is different from other types of sensors as because it […]

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Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converter

Sigma-delta Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is used in many application including telecommunications for analog to digital conversion. A Sigma-delta ADC has a modulator and a digital filter (also called as decimation filter) as shown in Fig. 1. A modulator converts the input analog signal into digital bit streams (1s and 0s). The Sigma-delta ADC method is based […]

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