## Resistance in Series

When two or more resistances are connected end to end consecutively, they are said to be connected in series. Figure 1 shows four resistances R1, R2, R3 and R4 which are connected in series. Resistances in series is denoted pictorially as shown in figure 2.   According to the law of combination of resistances in series, … Read more

## Electric Charge – Types, Properties & Charging Methods

Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter due to which electrical and other related effects are produced in the matter. The transfer of electrons from one object to another is responsible for the electric charging of the objects. Or Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force … Read more

## Classification of Electrical Energy Sources

Electrical energy sources are majorly classified into two classes i.e. Independent sources and Dependent sources. The independent sources are further divided into two types namely voltage source and the current source. There are four types of the dependent sources. They are as follows 1. Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) 2. Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS) 3. … Read more

## Ohm’s Law – Definition & Limitations

Ohm’s Law Definition The current flowing through any conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between two endpoints of the conductor at a constant temperature. where, ‘R’ is a constant known as the resistance of the conductor. The Ohm’s law can be applied to both AC and DC circuits. Limitations of Ohm’s law 1. It … Read more

## Peltier Effect

In 1834, a French scientist Peltier discovered that if the junctions are at the same temperature and a current is passed through the circuit of the Thermocouple, heat is produced at one Junction and absorbed at the other i.e. one junction (former) is heated and the other junction (later) is cooled. This is known as Peltier … Read more

## Active, Reactive and Apparent Power

Active Power The actual amount of power being used, or dissipated, in a circuit is called True power or Active Power or real power. It is measured in watt (W) or kilowatt (kW) or MW. It is symbolized by the capital letter P. It has been seen that the power is consumed only in resistance. Reactive … Read more

## Electrical Resistance | Resistor materials

The property of a material that opposes the flow of current through it, is called electrical resistance or simply resistance. The symbol of resistance is shown in the fig. 1. Practically, the electrical components that offers certain opposition (resistance) to the flow of current in the circuit is known as resistor. Fig. 1(b) shows some … Read more

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