What is Magnetic flux?

Magnetic flux is defined as the number of magnetic lines of force passing normally through a surface. It is denoted by symbol Φ (phi). The S.I. unit of magnetic flux is weber (Wb). It is a scalar quantity. The CGS unit of magnetic flux is maxwell. Consider a surface having area, A in the magnetic field having magnetic flux density, as shown in figure 1.

what is magnetic flux
Figure 1

Mathematically, Magnetic flux is defined as the scalar product between the magnetic flux density (

) and the vector of the surface area ().


= magnetic flux

B = magnetic flux density magnitude

A = area of surface

θ = angle between


Note: The direction of the vector

is always normal to the surface.

Case-1: When θ = 0°

what is magnetic flux

In this case, the flux is maximum.

Case-2: When θ = 90°

what is magnetic flux

In this case, the flux is minimum.

Note: Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter.

image reference

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