Magnetostriction & Villari Effect

Magnetostriction When a material (magnetic material) is magnetised, changes in dimension are generally observed.  This property of a magnetic material is called magnetostriction. There are three types of Magnetostriction Longitudinal Transverse Volume 1. Longitudinal Magnetostriction When a change in the dimension is in the direction of applied field. 2. Transverse Magnetostriction When a change in the dimension is perpendicular … Read more

Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding The binding forces between atoms or molecules are known as a chemical bond. There are two types of chemical bond. Primary Secondary Primary Bond These are the interatomic bond. These bond are having higher bond energy. Examples: Ionic, covalent and Metallic bond. Secondary Bond These are the intermolecular bond. These bond are having … Read more

Types of Conductors

Conductors are mainly made up of Copper, Aluminium and their alloys. Stranded Conductors Greater flexibility and mechanical strength than the single wire of same crossectional area. Total number of conductor is a strand of n layer = 1 + 3n(n + 1) Overall diameter of stranded conductor = (2n + 1)d where, d = diameter … Read more

Difference Between Asynchronous and Synchronous Counter

  S.No. Asynchronous Counter Synchronous Counter 1. All flip-flops are not clocked simultaneously. All flip-flops are clocked simultaneously. 2. Output of first flip-flop drives the clock of the second flip-flop, the output of second drives the third and so on. there is no interconnection between an output of one flip-flop and clock of next flip-flop. … Read more

Resistor Color Codes

A resistor is an electrical component that opposes the flow of current. We all have seen different resistors used in the circuits. But have you noticed that there are some colour bands on the resistor? What they indicate? Actually, Resistors are coded are with colours to identify their value and function. There are different resistors depending … Read more

SoftComputing and HardComputing

SoftComputing It is a collection of methodologies, which aim to exploit tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness, and low solution cost. SoftComputing Main Components 1. Approximate Reasoning example: Probabilistic Reasoning, Fuzzy logic. 2. Search and Optimization example: Neural Network, Evolutionary algorithms. Problem Solving Technologies HardComputing SoftComputing Comparison between HardComputing and … Read more

Electrical Appliance Classes

We use many electrical appliances in our houses, college, offices like a fan, heater, refrigerator, charger, vacuum cleaner, etc. Electrical Appliances are divided into certain classes according to the IEC 61140 standard and used to differentiate between the protective-earth connection requirements of devices. These are Class 0, Class I, Class II, and Class III. Fig. … Read more

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG)

Electrocardiography is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. It is abbreviated as (ECG or EKG). A normal ECG is shown below. Fig. 1 Electrocardiograph An electrocardiograph is a machine that is used to perform electrocardiography. Electrocardiogram It is the heart’s … Read more

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