Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding

The binding forces between atoms or molecules are known as a chemical bond. There are two types of chemical bond.

  1. Primary
  2. Secondary

Primary Bond

  • These are the interatomic bond.
  • These bond are having higher bond energy.
  • Examples: Ionic, covalent and Metallic bond.

Secondary Bond

  • These are the intermolecular bond.
  • These bond are having lesser bond energy as compared to primary bond.
  • Examples: Vander waal’s  and hydrogen bond.

Primary Bond

1. Ionic Bond

  • The ionic bond is a bond resulting from the electrostatic interaction of oppositely charged ions by transfer of electrons from one to other.
  • Ionic solid is formed particularly from elements on the left and right hand side of the periodic table. Example: Group-1 & Group-7 elements.
  • Group-1 elements are called Alkalis element (Li,Na,K,Rb,Cs,Fr).
  • Group-7 elements are called Halogen’s element (Br, Cl, I, F).
  • The Alkali halide form between the alkalis metal and halogen are strongly ionic.

General Characteristics of Solids having Ionic Bond

  1. Higher strength
  2. higher melting point
  3. hard
  4. Electrical insulator
  5. Brittle (that can be break easily)
  6. Malleable (can be shaped)

2. Covalent Bond

  • These bond forms by sharing of the electron between neighbouring atom.
  • Examples: Si, Ge, CO2

General Characteristics of Material having Covalent Bond

  1. Very hard
  2. very brittle
  3. very high melting point
  4. Conductor (Tin), Semiconductor (Si, Ge), Insulator (Diamond).

3. Metallic Bond

  • The outer most electron of metal atom are weakly bound and when such atom interacts to become solid; the electron form a gas of electron known as electron gas or electron cloud.
  • The valence electron in a metal can’t be associated with a particular atom. They belong to all atom.

General Characteristics of Material having Metallic Bond

  1. Higher thermal and electric property.
  2. Metals are opaque.
  3. They are having surface lustre.
  4. Metallic bonds are non-directional. It means that bond strength is equal in all direction.
  5. The highest degree of metallic bonding occurs in alkali metal.

Vander-Waal Bonding

  • An electron revolving around a nucleus may be considered to represent a rotating dipole.
  • Such a dipole will induce a dipole in neighbouring atoms such that a dipole attraction between the atom results.
  • Vander Waal bonds are weaker bonds.
  • Examples: Solid Ar, Solid He, Solid hydrogen.
  • Inert or rare gas is an example of vander waal bonding.
  • Hydrogen bond is a strong type of vander wall bonding.

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