Electric Vehicles mainly are of four types

a). Battery Electric Vehicle (BEVs) or Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs)

  • These vehicles run entirely on an electric drive train and battery, without a conventional internal combustion engine.
  • These vehicles take an external source of electricity to recharge their batteries by plugging into a power grid.
  • BEVs may employ regenerative braking to recharge their batteries.

b). Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

  • These vehicles run mostly on batteries that are recharged by plugging into the power grid.
  • These vehicles are equipped with an internal combustion engine that can recharge the battery and/or replace the electric drivetrain with gasoline propulsion system when the battery is low or more power is required.

c). Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

  • These vehicles have two complementary drive systems: an electric motor with battery and a gasoline engine with a fuel tank.
  • The engine and the motor can simultaneously turn the transmission, which powers the wheels.
  • It is noted that HEVs cannot be recharged from the power grid directly. HEVs energy comes entirely from gasoline.

d). Fuel-cell Electric Vehicles

  • Instead of storing and releasing energy like a battery, fuel-cell electric vehicles create electricity from hydrogen and oxygen.
  • However, fuel-cell technology is not yet problem free. Extracting hydrogen from a water molecule is an energy-intensive process that generates greenhouse gas emissions if renewable energies are not used.
  • Example: Tucson Fuel Cell | A Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car

Comparison between Plug-in and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

  Plug-in Electric Vehicles Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Propulsion Electric motor / battery only Electric motor / battery plus gasoline engine
Refueling Recharge with electricity Recharge with electricity or refuel with gasoline
Range 70 – 100 miles on a full charge 15 – 35 miles on battery power alone, and 300+ in electric-gasoline hybrid mode
Charging time 4-6 hours to fully charge using a 220-volt charger. About 1 hour to fully charge using a 220-volt charger, and about 3 hours at 120-volts.
Battery Lithium ion battery size

24kWh – 36 kWh

Lithium-ion battery size is smaller than those found in pure PEVs.
Types of Electric Vehicles

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