a). Battery Electric Vehicle (BEVs) or Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs)
These vehicles run entirely on an electric drive train and battery, without a conventional internal combustion engine.
These vehicles take an external source of electricity to recharge their batteries by plugging into a power grid.
BEVs may employ regenerative braking to recharge their batteries.
b). Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
These vehicles run mostly on batteries that are recharged by plugging into the power grid.
These vehicles are equipped with an internal combustion engine that can recharge the battery and/or replace the electric drive train with gasoline propulsion system when the battery is low or more power is required.
c). Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)
These vehicles have two complementary drive systems: an electric motor with batteryand a gasoline engine with a fuel tank.
The engine and the motor can simultaneously turn the transmission, which powers the wheels.
It is noted that HEVs cannot be recharged from the power grid directly. HEVs energy comes entirely from gasoline.
d). Fuel-cell Electric Vehicles
Instead of storing and releasing energy like a battery, fuel-cell electric vehicles create electricity from hydrogen and oxygen.
However, fuel-cell technology is not yet problem free. Extracting hydrogen from a water molecule is an energy-intensive process that generates greenhouse gas emissions if renewable energies are not used.