Types of Electric Vehicles

In this article, we will see the types of electric vehiclesElectric Vehicles mainly are of four types classed by the degree that electricity is used as their energy source.

  1. Battery Electric Vehicle
  2. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  3. Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  4. Fuel-cell Electric Vehicle

Types of Electric Vehicles

a). Battery Electric Vehicle (BEVs) or Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs)

  • These vehicles run entirely on an electric drive train and battery, without a conventional internal combustion engine.
  • These vehicles take an external source of electricity to recharge their batteries by plugging into a power grid.
  • BEVs may employ regenerative braking to recharge their batteries.
  • Examples: BMW i3, Chevy Bolt, Chevy Spark, Nissan LEAF, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai Ioniq, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla Model S, Tesla X, Tesla Model 3, Toyota Rav4, Volkswagen e-Golf.

b). Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

  • These vehicles run mostly on batteries that are recharged by plugging into the power grid.
  • These vehicles are equipped with an internal combustion engine that can recharge the battery and/or replace the electric drivetrain with gasoline propulsion system when the battery is low or more power is required.
  • Examples: Mercedes C350e, Fiat 500e, Hyundai Sonata, Kia Optima, Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid, Toyota Prius, Volvo XC90 T8, Mercedes S550e, Mercedes GLE550e, Mini Cooper SE Countryman, Audi A3 E-Tron, BMW 330e, BMW i8, Chevy Volt, Chrysler Pacifica, Ford C-Max Energi, Ford Fusion Energi.

c). Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

  • These vehicles have two complementary drive systems: an electric motor with battery and a gasoline engine with a fuel tank.
  • The engine and the motor can simultaneously turn the transmission, which powers the wheels.
  • It is noted that HEVs cannot be recharged from the power grid directly. HEVs energy comes entirely from gasoline.
  • Examples: Toyota Prius Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid

d). Fuel-cell Electric Vehicles

  • Instead of storing and releasing energy like a battery, fuel-cell electric vehicles create electricity from hydrogen and oxygen.
  • However, fuel-cell technology is not yet problem free. Extracting hydrogen from a water molecule is an energy-intensive process that generates greenhouse gas emissions if renewable energies are not used.
  • Example: Tucson Fuel Cell | A Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car

Comparison between Plug-in and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

  Plug-in Electric Vehicles Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Propulsion Electric motor / battery only Electric motor / battery plus gasoline engine
Refueling Recharge with electricity Recharge with electricity or refuel with gasoline
Range 70 – 100 miles on a full charge 15 – 35 miles on battery power alone, and 300+ in electric-gasoline hybrid mode
Charging time 4-6 hours to fully charge using a 220-volt charger. About 1 hour to fully charge using a 220-volt charger, and about 3 hours at 120-volts.
Battery Lithium ion battery size

24kWh – 36 kWh

Lithium-ion battery size is smaller than those found in pure PEVs.

1 thought on “Types of Electric Vehicles”

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!