Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials

Soft Magnetic Materials

  • These materials are easy to magnetise and demagnetise.
  • These materials favour rapid switching (it means high frequency) of magnetism to applied ac field.
  • These materials have low retentivity.
  • Low coercivity.
  • High permeability
  • High magnetic saturation
  • Low hysteresis losses because of the lesser area of the hysteresis loop.
  • These materials are used for transformer and inductances core to minimize energy dissipation (reduction in hysteresis area).
  • Desirable for electromagnets.


1. Si-Steel/ Soft iron/ Fe-Si alloy

  • It is used up to power frequency (50 to 60 Hz).
  • It is used in power transformer.
  • When 5% Si is added, it increases maximum permissible d.c. resistivity and reduces the area of hysteresis loop (low hysteresis losses).
  • low eddy current losses.

2. Fe-Ni alloy

  1. 36% Ni (Invar): It is used for a high-frequency application such are used as high-speed relay and transformer.
  2. 50% Ni: It is used for magnetic memory.
  3. 77% Ni: It is used for precision voltage and current transformer.
  4. Permalloy: have 45% Ni
  5. Super-alloy: have 79% Ni
  6. Mu-metal: have 75% Ni

Note: (iv), (v) and (vi) have high permeability and less area of the hysteresis loop.

Hard Magnetic Materials

  • These materials are also called permanent magnet material.
  • These materials retain their magnetisation and difficult to demagnetise.
  • These materials have high retentivity.
  • High Coercivity
  • High permeability
  • High magnetic saturation
  • High Curie point or temperature
  • High hysteresis losses because of the larger area of the hysteresis loop.


  1. Carbon steel: It is used as a magnet for latching relays or compass needle.
  2. Tungeston steel: It is used as magnets in D.C. motors.
  3. AlNiCo (Al, Ni, Co): There magnetic properties are very stable with time and temperature.
  4. Ba-ferrite
  5. Remalloy
  6. Cunite (Cu, Ni, Co)

Difference between Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials

1 thought on “Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials”

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Adblocker detected! Please consider reading this notice.

We've detected that you are using AdBlock Plus or some other adblocking software which is preventing the page from fully loading.

We don't have any banner, Flash, animation, obnoxious sound, or popup ad. We do not implement these annoying types of ads!

We need fund to operate the site, and almost all of it comes from our online advertising.

Please add to your ad blocking whitelist or disable your adblocking software.