Sensors | Classification & Characteristics

Instrumentation M.Tech. Transducers

A sensor is basically a device that converts the physical parameter (for example, viscosity, temperature, blood pressure, light intensity, humidity, speed, etc.) into a signal(may be electrical or non-electrical quantity) which can be easily measured. For example, let us consider an electrical resistance temperature element. Here the measurand is the temperature which is being sensed by the said device and it produces an electrical resistance from the temperature being measured.

Note: All sensors are transducers but not all transducers are sensors.

Also Read: Smart Sensors

Static Characteristics

  1. Accuracy
  2. Precision
  3. Reproducibility & Repeatability
  4. Range and span
  5. Sensitivity
  6. Signal to noise(S/N) ratio
  7. Linearity
  8. Hysteresis

Dynamic Characteristics

  1. Frequency and Impulse responses
  2. Speed of the response
  3. Measuring lag
  4. Fidelity
  5. Dynamic error

Classification of sensors

Sensor Types Examples
Flow Differential Pressure, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic
Level Mechanical, DP, Magnetostrictive, radio frequency
Temperature RTD, Thermistor, Thermocouple,
Displacement Potentiometric, LVDT, Capacitive, Photoelectric
Acceleration Accelerometer, Gyroscope
Image CMOS,CCDs
Chemical Ionization, Infrared, Semiconductor
Biosensor Electrochemical, SPR, LAP
Others Mass, Force, Humidity, Viscosity

 

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