Using the slowest charging level, PHEVs and PEVs double the load of a typical home (2 kW).
Suppose that a distribution transformer serves 7-8 homes, so any significant load increase as represented by PHEVs and PEVs will translate into a significant relative load increase for transformers that are not designed to accommodate such increase.
The proposed solution to this problem is to charge EVs at night when the home load is at its minimum.
Another solution is to rapidly charge an EV at night using stored power that is generated by the PV modules during the day. With this approach, the extra power consumption of the car is not being presented to the grid.
Another issue is regarding control, i.e., “when to charge an electric car”.
For this, there must exist a communication and information exchange between the grid and the Electric Vehicle charging hardware.
The proposed solution is to provide a bi-directional flow of information and control actions in conventional power grids which are known as smart grids.
Smart meters that are connected at consumer end play an important role in the smart grid. The smart meters transmit energy consumption information at a grid connection point back to the utility so as to control demand levels based on various mechanisms, such as through differentiated pricing that motivates users to charge their EVs at night. In extreme cases, the control signal may directly disconnect the Electric Vehicle charging circuit until load levels are reduced.
The third issue is regarding charging time.
AC Level 1 charges the EV in about 10-11 hours and AC level 3 charges the EV in 5-7 hours. These charging levels are available for home charging. So there is a need for a fast charger that will reduce the charging time.
The fourth issue is regarding range anxiety.
As in India, there is no commercial charging station available like petrol pumps, so there is a range anxiety among people. A solution for this problem is to have a well-connected network of fast charging station like we have petrol pumps so that people can have easy access to charging their vehicles on the go.