The term Artificial intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy in 1956. Artificial intelligence(AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it
- the ability to solve problems
- the ability to act rationally
- the ability to act like humans
AI is intelligence exhibited by machines rather than humans or other animals. Hence, AI is defined as the study of “intelligent agents“: any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.
Comparisons between human and computer intelligence
Normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to ‘quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions‘, but computer programs have plenty of speed and memory but their abilities correspond to the intellectual mechanisms that program designers understand well enough to put in programs.
Whenever people do better than computers on some task or computers use a lot of computation to do as well as people, this demonstrates that the program designers lack understanding of the intellectual mechanisms required to do the task efficiently.
Why Artificial Intelligence?
- Computers are fundamentally well suited to performing mechanical computations, using fixed programmed rules.
- AI research is allowing us to understand our intelligent behavior.
- Artificial machines perform simple monotonous tasks efficiently and reliably, which humans are ill-suited to.
- AI can help us understand this process by recreating it, then potentially enabling us to enhance it beyond our current capabilities.
- AI aims to improve machine behavior in tackling such complex tasks.
- Humans have an interesting approach to problem-solving, based on abstract thought, high-level deliberative reasoning and pattern recognition.
- For more complex problems, things get more difficult… Unlike humans, computers have trouble understanding specific situations and adapting to new situations.
Limitations of Artificial Intelligence
- To date, all the traits of human intelligence have not been captured and applied together to spawn an intelligent artificial creature.
- It is Costly.
- Currently, Artificial Intelligence rather seems to focus on lucrative domain-specific applications, which do not necessarily require the full extent of AI capabilities.
- It can’t handle a difficult situation.
- There is little doubt among the community that artificial machines will be capable of intelligent thought in the near future.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
- It can help improve our way of life.
- Machines will be able to do jobs that require detailed instructions
- Artificial intelligence also makes interactive electronic games more fun by making the computer-controlled characters more realistic and human-like.
- Use robots for heavy construction, military benefits, or even for personal assistance at private homes.
- There will be fewer injuries and stress to human beings.
- Artificial intelligence opens up new and exciting avenues for entertainment possibilities.
- Many of our health problems now have possible solutions with the use of Artificial Intelligence in studies at universities.
- Mental alertness and decision-making capabilities.
- Scientists have been using AI to test theories and notions about how our brains work.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
1. Game playing
There is some Artificial intelligence in them and they play well against people
2. Speech recognition
instructs some computers using speech.
3. Understanding natural language
The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains.
4. Expert systems
One of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974, which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and suggested treatments. It did better than medical students or practicing doctors, provided its limitations were observed. The usefulness of current expert systems depends on their users having common sense.
5. Modeling Human Performance
6. Planning & Robotics
7. Languages & Environments for Artificial intelligence
8. Machine Learning
9. AI & Philosophy
Programming languages used to develop AI
- C ++