Signal Flow Graph

In case of block diagram reduction diagram, there is no standard procedure for reducing the block diagram to evaluate its transfer function. Also, the block diagram reduction technique is tedious and is difficult to choose the rules to be applied for reduction. In order to avoid such problems, the block diagram is converted to signal … Read more

State Space Representation of a System

The control system analysis fails for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and the systems initially not at rest by using transfer function approach. The use of the state-space approach for the analysis of control systems enables to overcome the shortcomings of the transfer function approach. State The state of a dynamic system is the smallest state of variables … Read more

Mechanical Electrical Analogy

Mechanical Electrical Analogy The concept of an analogous system is very useful in practice. Since one type of system may be easier to handle experimentally than other. A given electrical system consisting of resistance, inductance and capacitance may be analogous to the mechanical system consisting of a suitable combination of dashpot, mass, and spring. Analogous System … Read more

Unsupervised Learning

A cluster is comprised of a number of similar feature vectors group together. If there are ‘d‘ features used to describe the data, a cluster can be described as a region in d-dimensional space containing a relatively high density of points separated from other such reasons regions by regions containing a relatively low density of … Read more

Operations on Fuzzy Set

Operations on Fuzzy Set 1. Subset A ⊂ B ↔ μA(x) ≤ μB(x),      ∀ x ∈ X 2. Complement Ac ↔ μAc(x) = 1 − μA(x),      ∀ x ∈ X 3. Superset A ⊃ B ↔ μA(x) ≥ μB(x),      ∀ x ∈ X The characteristic function will never exceed beyond the value of 1. It’s value varies between 0 and 1 always. 4. Intersection … Read more

Fuzzy T-norm and S-norm Operator

T-norm (Triangular norm) ——> Fuzzy Intersection T-norm operator: A∩B ↔ µA∩B (x) = T (µA(x), µB(x)) = µA(x) ∧ µB(x),     ∀ x ∈ X where ∧ is for T-norm operator (example, min. product) Definition of T-norm operator A T-norm operator denoted by T(a,b) is a function mapping [0,1]×[0,1] to [0,1] that satisfies the following conditions for any … Read more

LASER Working | Types & Applications

LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. LASER is a narrow beam of light of a single wavelength (monochromatic) in which each wave is in phase (coherent) with others near it. Laser apparatus Laser apparatus is a device that produces an intense concentrated, and a highly parallel beam of coherent light. Atom … Read more

X-ray Working | Applications

X-rays It is a form of electromagnetic radiation having a high frequency (energy) or shorter wavelength. It has no mass, no charge but has energy. It travels at the speed of light When an X-ray is projected on the human body, three things happen i.e. Pass all the way through the body deflected or scattered … Read more

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