Earthing or Grounding

Earthing or Grounding Grounding is the process of creating an alternative(different) path for the flow of fault(excessive) currents safely into the ground in the presence of minimal resistance or impedance. It connects non-current carrying parts of an equipment to the general mass of earth in such a manner as to ensure, at all times, an immediate … Read more

Insulating Materials for Cables & Electronic Equipments

Insulating Materials for Cables The insulating materials (dielectrics) used for cables must have low discharge current, low dissipation factor (low loss tangent), and should be chemically stable. The materials generally used are impregnated paper, bituminous compounds, rubber, compressed air, mineral oil etc. In the present days, cross-linked polyethylene cables (XLPE) are manufactured for 11 kV, … Read more

Components of A Substation

The main components of a substation are Busbars Surge or Lightning Arresters Isolators or disconnecting switches Earth Switch Circuit Breaker Power Transformer Wave Trap Current Transformer Potential Transformer 1. Busbars It is a strip or bar of copper, brass or aluminium that conducts electricity within a switchboard of a substation. Its main purpose is to … Read more

Electrical Power Substations

Substation It is defined as the transmission and distribution network which receives electrical energy at a higher voltage and transfer to a consumer at low voltage. The points that should be kept in mind while setting Substations Substation should be located at a proper site as far as possible. Substation should be located at the … Read more

Components of HVDC Transmission System

In the previous article, we learnt about HVDC Transmission System, its advantages and disadvantages. In this article, we will discuss the main components of HVDC Transmission System. The main components associated with HVDC system are as follows Converter Smoothing reactor Harmonic filters Reactive Power Supplies Electrodes DC lines AC Circuit Breaker 1. Converters They perform AC to … Read more

Types of Conductors

Conductors are mainly made up of Copper, Aluminium and their alloys. Stranded Conductors Greater flexibility and mechanical strength than the single wire of same crossectional area. Total number of conductor is a strand of n layer = 1 + 3n(n + 1) Overall diameter of stranded conductor = (2n + 1)d where, d = diameter … Read more

String Efficiency of Suspension Insulators & Methods of Improving Voltage Distribution

In the previous article, we have discussed different types of insulators used in an overhead transmission line. We talked about advantages and disadvantages of each type of insulators. In this article, we will be talking about voltage distribution and string efficiency of Suspension insulator.   Voltage Distribution Over A Suspension Insulator String Fig.1 Suspension Insulator … Read more

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